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Get the most information out of seismic data with our leading technology and internationally recognized expertise.

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Our geoscience expertise and data integration capabilities enable our clients to be more efficient, effective and responsible in growing their new energy projects.

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Enhancing salt model resolution and subsalt imaging with elastic FWI

Mar 13, 2023

Full-waveform inversion (FWI) has become the centerpiece of velocity model building (VMB) in seismic processing in recent years. It has proven to significantly improve the velocity model, and thus the migration image, for different acquisition types and different geologic settings, including very complex environments such as salt. With the advent of FWI Imaging, which shows remarkable uplifts over conventional imaging approaches because of the inherent least-squares data-fitting process and the utilization of full-wavefield data, FWI further extends its applications from VMB into imaging. However, FWI applications in the industry as of now prevalently employ the acoustic approximation. While the acoustic approximation can sufficiently explain a majority of the recorded seismic data, thus enabling acoustic FWI to derive reasonable velocity models, its limitation manifests itself around strong impedance contrasts where the elastic effect is strong. For example, at the salt-sediment interface, acoustic FWI (A-FWI) almost always leads to apparent salt halos in the resulting velocity models. With synthetic and field data examples, we demonstrate that the salt halo is mainly caused by the large data mismatch between the elastic input data and the acoustic modeled data in acoustic FWI, particularly at middle to long offsets. Therefore, we developed an elastic FWI (E-FWI) algorithm that combines an elastic modeling engine with the time-lag cost function, which we call elastic Time-lag FWI (E-TLFWI). With a more accurate modeling engine, E-TLFWI can significantly reduce the salt halo observed in its acoustic counterpart. Nevertheless, the migration images using the acoustic and elastic FWI velocity models remain similar overall, with some slight improvements around and beneath salt boundaries, particularly near steep salt flanks, as a result of the reduced salt halo. By contrast, FWI Images derived from E-TLFWI show considerable benefits over those from acoustic Time-lag FWI (A-TLFWI), such as improved event focusing, better structural continuity, and higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). The sharpened salt boundaries and enhanced quality of the FWI Images justify the value of elastic FWI.

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Industry Article

Côte d’Ivoire Spotlight: Viridien-PETROCI Interview

Jul 22, 2024

In an exclusive interview with Frontier Energy Network, Emmanuel Nformi, Viridien’s Business Development Manager, Sub-Saharan Africa, Earth Data, and Samuel Essoh, Geoscience Director, PETROCI, spoke about the relationship forged with Côte d’Ivoire’s ...

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Geotools 2024 update

Jul 29 - Jul 30, 2024 | Online, Online

Join our webinar to learn what’s new in Geotools - the leading software for EM data analysis, inversion and interpretation. We will demonstrate the latest enhancements and new capabilities – including the newly released 3D CSAMT inversion module - an ...

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Seismic Imager

Are you a physicist, data scientist, engineer, mathematician or problem-solver? Good, glad we have that in common! Join us in transforming real seismic data into stunning 3D images of the Earth’s subsurface. No experience? Don’t worry, we’ll show you the way.

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